A timeline of testosterone replacement therapy milestones
- 1849: Arnold Adolph Berthold, a German physiologist, conducts experiments on roosters and observes that removing their testes causes changes in their physical characteristics.
- 1889: Charles-Édouard Brown-Séquard, a French physician, injects himself with a concoction made from the testicles of dogs and guinea pigs, claiming that it improved his physical and mental health.
- 1935: The chemical structure of testosterone is first identified by Ernst Laqueur, a Dutch biochemist.
- 1937: The first clinical trial of testosterone replacement therapy is conducted by Paul Heinrich Emmett and Enrest Laqueur in Amsterdam. They administer testosterone to a patient with low testosterone levels and report improvements in his physical and mental health.
- 1944: The first synthetic form of testosterone, testosterone propionate, is developed.
- 1953: A study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) reports that testosterone replacement therapy can improve muscle mass and strength in men with low testosterone levels.
- 1960s: Testosterone replacement therapy becomes more widely available and is prescribed to men with low testosterone levels.
- 1970s-1980s: The use of testosterone replacement therapy declines due to concerns about the risk of prostate cancer and cardiovascular disease.
- 1990s: The development of newer forms of testosterone, such as testosterone enanthate and testosterone cypionate, leads to a renewed interest in testosterone replacement therapy.
- 2000s: Testosterone replacement therapy becomes more popular, with sales of testosterone increasing rapidly.
- 2010s: Studies suggest that testosterone replacement therapy may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and prostate cancer in some men, leading to increased scrutiny of the safety and efficacy of testosterone replacement therapy.
- 2015: The FDA issues a safety alert warning that testosterone replacement therapy may increase the risk of heart attack, stroke, and death in some men, leading to increased regulation of testosterone replacement therapy.
Today, testosterone replacement therapy continues to be a popular treatment option for men with low testosterone levels. However, it is important for individuals to work with a qualified healthcare provider to determine the appropriate form and dosage of testosterone for their individual needs and to monitor for potential side effects.